Chapter Two (The Spirit and The Soul )
The Soul According To Ibn-Taymeyah
Ibn-Taymeyah states that philosophers divide the soul into vegetarian, situated in the liver, the animal found in the heart, and the articulating placed in the brain. He proclaims that it is wrong to think that they exist as separate entities by themselves. Ibn-Taymeyah also states that: ”There are three kinds of souls: the dictating one which follows its evil inclinations and sinful pleasures; the rebuking soul which sins and repents and in which there is both good and evil; and the assuring soul which loves righteousness and hates evil thus becoming its manner and conduct. Ibn-Taymeyah, however, refutes the idea that there are three types of souls for each human being who has only one soul. They are rather different characteristics and conditions of just one self.
Moslem and Arab scholars were the first to discover the psychological, spiritual, and nervous factors found in the mental, spiritual, and physiological ailments. They were thus the first to establish what we now call ”Psychosomatic Medicine”. They strongly opposed isolating or imprisoning patients but they were the first in suggesting setting up mental asylums and psychiatric clinics for patients suffering from spiritual and psychological ailments.